Currency Call Option – Intersindical RTVV Thu, 02 Dec 2021 16:25:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Currency Call Option – Intersindical RTVV 32 32 QUILTER PLC – Form 8.3 Announcement – SENS Thu, 02 Dec 2021 15:42:00 +0000

Form 8.3 Announcement

(previously, Old Mutual Wealth Management Limited)
Incorporated under the Companies Act 1985 with registered
number 06404270 and re-registered as a public limited
company under the Companies Act 2006)
Quilter plc (the ‘Company’)
FORM 8.3

Rule 8.3 of the Takeover Code (the “Code”)


(a) Full name of discloser: Quilter PLC (and subsidiaries)

(b) Owner or controller of interests and short
positions disclosed, if different from 1(a):
The naming of nominee or vehicle companies is
insufficient. For a trust, the trustee(s), settlor and
beneficiaries must be named.
(c) Name of offeror/offeree in relation to whose The Ince Group PLC
relevant securities this form relates:
Use a separate form for each offeror/offeree
(d) If an exempt fund manager connected with an
offeror/offeree, state this and specify identity of
(e) Date position held/dealing undertaken: 01/12/2021
For an opening position disclosure, state the latest
practicable date prior to the disclosure
(f) In addition to the company in 1(c) above, is the N/A
discloser making disclosures in respect of any
other party to the offer?
If it is a cash offer or possible cash offer, state “N/A”


If there are positions or rights to subscribe to disclose in more than one class of relevant
securities of the offeror or offeree named in 1(c), copy table 2(a) or (b) (as appropriate) for
each additional class of relevant security.

(a) Interests and short positions in the relevant securities of the offeror or offeree
to which the disclosure relates following the dealing (if any)

Class of relevant security: 1p ordinary

Interests Short positions

Number % Number %
(1) Relevant securities owned 1,024,433 1.49
and/or controlled:
(2) Cash-settled derivatives:

(3) Stock-settled derivatives
(including options) and

Form 8.3
agreements to purchase/sell:
TOTAL: 1,024,433 1.49

All interests and all short positions should be disclosed.

Details of any open stock-settled derivative positions (including traded options), or
agreements to purchase or sell relevant securities, should be given on a Supplemental
Form 8 (Open Positions).

(b) Rights to subscribe for new securities (including directors’ and other employee

Class of relevant security in relation to
which subscription right exists:
Details, including nature of the rights
concerned and relevant percentages:


Where there have been dealings in more than one class of relevant securities of the offeror or
offeree named in 1(c), copy table 3(a), (b), (c) or (d) (as appropriate) for each additional class
of relevant security dealt in.

The currency of all prices and other monetary amounts should be stated.

(a) Purchases and sales

Class of relevant security Purchase/sale Number of securities Price per unit

(b) Cash-settled derivative transactions

Class of Product Nature of dealing Number of Price per
relevant description e.g. opening/closing a reference unit
security e.g. CFD long/short position, securities
increasing/reducing a
long/short position

(c) Stock-settled derivative transactions (including options)

(i) Writing, selling, purchasing or varying

Class Product Writing, Number Exercis Type Expir Option
of descriptio purchasing of e price e.g. y date money
relevan n e.g. call , selling, securitie per unit American paid/
t option varying s to , receive
securit etc. which Europea d per
y option n etc. unit

(ii) Exercise

Form 8.3 December 2021
Class of Product Exercising/ Number of Exercise price
relevant description exercised securities per unit
security e.g. call option against

(d) Other dealings (including subscribing for new securities)

Class of relevant Nature of dealing Details Price per unit (if
security e.g. subscription, conversion applicable)
1p ordinary Transfer out 50,000


(a) Indemnity and other dealing arrangements

Details of any indemnity or option arrangement, or any agreement or understanding,
formal or informal, relating to relevant securities which may be an inducement to deal
or refrain from dealing entered into by the person making the disclosure and any party
to the offer or any person acting in concert with a party to the offer:
Irrevocable commitments and letters of intent should not be included. If there are no such
agreements, arrangements or understandings, state “none”

(b) Agreements, arrangements or understandings relating to options or derivatives

Details of any agreement, arrangement or understanding, formal or informal, between
the person making the disclosure and any other person relating to:
(i) the voting rights of any relevant securities under any option; or
(ii) the voting rights or future acquisition or disposal of any relevant securities to which
any derivative is referenced:
If there are no such agreements, arrangements or understandings, state “none”

(c) Attachments

Is a Supplemental Form 8 (Open Positions) attached? NO

0B Date of disclosure: 02/12/2021

1B Contact name: Julia Taltavull

2B Telephone number*: +44 (0)207 150 4233

Public disclosures under Rule 8 of the Code must be made to a Regulatory Information

The Panel’s Market Surveillance Unit is available for consultation in relation to the Code’s
disclosure requirements on +44 (0)20 7638 0129.

*If the discloser is a natural person, a telephone number does not need to be included,
provided contact information has been provided to the Panel’s Market Surveillance Unit.

Form 8.3
The Code can be viewed on the Panel’s website at

2nd December 2021

J.P. Morgan Equities South Africa Proprietary Limited

Form 8.3

Date: 02-12-2021 05:42:00
Produced by the JSE SENS Department. The SENS service is an information dissemination service administered by the JSE Limited (‘JSE’).
The JSE does not, whether expressly, tacitly or implicitly, represent, warrant or in any way guarantee the truth, accuracy or completeness of
the information published on SENS. The JSE, their officers, employees and agents accept no liability for (or in respect of) any direct,
indirect, incidental or consequential loss or damage of any kind or nature, howsoever arising, from the use of SENS or the use of, or reliance on,
information disseminated through SENS.

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Declare that crypto will never be a currency Mon, 29 Nov 2021 07:45:26 +0000 Suppose you and I enter into a private contract in which I sell you a digital version of the famous Mother India board by MF Husain and you pay me 100 Ethereums (cryptocurrency). In a free society, as consenting adults, we can enter into any agreement to transact in private property. What should a digital version of Husain’s painting be worth or whether this transaction should be done in Ethereums or gold or whatever should ideally not be of concern to the government.

But if you later realize that what I sold you is just a picture of Husain’s painting, taken without permission, or that the value of the Ethereums you paid was multiplied by 50 and you paid too much, then the state should step in and provide recourse for you?

This is the crux of the cryptocurrency debate. Cryptocurrencies, despite the name, cannot be “currencies”. Money, by definition, is about trust that cannot be replaced by “cool” technology. When the Indian currency was suddenly demonetized overnight, it was the confidence people placed in their currency that was shaken, the effects of which still persist. Even though it may indulge in reckless experiments with the national currency, the state should still not give up its sovereign right to issue currency. This state-backed currency should serve as the primary medium of exchange in any society.

By now, the world has realized the dangers of letting engineers run wild with their decentralized ‘peer to peer’ technological disruptions such as Facebook, WhatsApp and other social media tools that have created deep mistrust and havoc. in the society. A trusted currency with sovereign backing is the cornerstone of modern society, and it cannot be replaced by distributed and decentralized token technology without causing major social upheaval.

If cryptocurrencies are not legalized as a currency, then why ban them? Banning an unrecognized medium of exchange is neither feasible nor useful. If two parties still want to transact using eclectic objects with full knowledge that they are not a valid medium of exchange, then the state does not need to intervene in that transaction.

A ban will only make these transactions underground, making it even more difficult to track and control them when needed, such as sports betting.

Which still leaves the question of giving recourse to people who could have been swindled in blockchain transactions. It is tempting to bring up the idea of ​​a new government regulator to monitor the abuse of private transactions and protect those affected. But establishing a new regulator for cryptocurrencies can trigger what economists call a moral hazard problem. It risks sending a deceptive signal to a supervisory authority to protect its losses, thus prompting more people to speculate on things that will never be recognized as a legitimate medium of exchange. In other words, putting in place a new regulator for oversight and remediation can stimulate speculative cryptocurrency trading rather than curbing it under the pretext that there is now an investor protection authority.

The other idea launched is to treat cryptocurrencies as “assets” for the purposes of taxation and tax on trading gains in cryptocurrencies in order to curb speculation. Again, this risks legitimizing what should be strictly unrecognized private activity. People trading cryptocurrencies with each other in a private market should be treated the same as people trading face masks with each other – at their own risk and outside the realm of government support or intervention.

It is said that there are 15 million investors trading billions of dollars in cryptocurrencies in India. There is no sanctity in these numbers. This is simply an estimate provided by one of the many private crypto companies. Either way, it is clear that the only reason people choose to invest or speculate in cryptocurrencies today is in the hope that their price will increase in the future. And the hope of an increase in the prices of cryptos depends on the ultimate hope that they will be recognized as a valid medium of exchange, which will increase the demand for cryptocurrencies. Once it is well established that cryptos will never be legal tender in India, then business activity in these is expected to decrease significantly over time.

Communicating clearly and loudly to everyone that cryptocurrencies will not be recognized as currency or as a medium of exchange in India may be the best option to curb the cryptocurrency frenzy. While this is not a medium of exchange, it is not clear that cryptocurrencies have any value. This realization will quickly be felt among investors looking for easy money and eventually lead to a correction. Anything else such as putting in place a regulator or taxing earnings can be counterproductive and a dime a dozen. Sure, some investors can lose money, but that’s the risk of greed for a quick buck.

There is a lot of talk about a bill presented in the next session of Parliament to ban, regulate or tax cryptocurrencies. Since there is no draft bill in the public domain, speculation about the content of the bill is as frantic as the trading of crypto exchanges. A more serene analysis will reveal that the best action is not to overreact but to simply declare that India will never recognize cryptocurrencies.

Praveen Chakravarty is a political economist and chairman of Congressional Data Analytics

Opinions expressed are personal

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India Paytm Seven’s Net Loss Widens, Says It Maintains Growth Momentum Sat, 27 Nov 2021 15:03:00 +0000

The interface of the Indian payment application Paytm is visible in front of its logo displayed in this illustrative photo taken on July 7, 2021. REUTERS / Florence Lo / Illustration / File Photo

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NEW DELHI, Nov. 27 (Reuters) – India’s One 97 Communications Ltd (PAYT.NS), parent company of fintech company Paytm, said on Saturday that its net loss for the three months through September was expanded by 8.4% as spending increased.

Paytm, which reports profits for the first time since its stock market debut this month, reported a consolidated net loss of 4.74 billion rupees ($ 63.2 million) against 4.37 billion rupees during from the same period a year earlier.

Revenue increased 49.7% to 11.35 billion rupees.

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“We have maintained the growth momentum of our payment services business, aggressively developed our financial services business and are on track to achieve pre-COVID volumes for Commerce and Cloud services,” Paytm said in a statement. communicated.

Paytm, which counts Chinese group Ant and Japanese group SoftBank Corp (9984.T) among its backers, raised $ 2.5 billion this month in the largest initial public offering (IPO) in India, but made a dismal start on the stock market last week.

The title has recovered part of its losses but remains 17% below its issue price.

“Paytm faces serious challenges in its customer acquisition engine, which would slow its revenue growth in the basic payments industry,” brokerage firm JM Financial said in a note to clients a day before. Paytm profits. “We find the valuations rich and the path to profitability strewn with high execution risks in the context.”

The company said the gross value of its merchandise from transactions other than a state-backed peer-to-peer payments network, commonly known as UPI, increased 52% in the quarter compared to the previous year. last year.

Paytm competes with Google (GOOGL.O) and Walmart Inc (WMT.N) PhonePe in the Indian digital payments market, and all of these companies offer peer-to-peer payments on UPI.

The company said it was “well funded” with a cash equivalent and an investable balance of Rs 110 billion, including through the IPO.

Founder and CEO Vijay Shekhar Sharma said investors will need time to understand the business of the company.

“Some of the positions in our payments business are not only generating profits, but also free cash flow,” Sharma said on a call to investors. “Our revenues and contribution margins are increasing thanks to the payments and financial services business where payment itself is the primary driver. “

Its commerce, cloud and financial services businesses had huge potential to make more money for the company, said Madhur Deora, chief financial officer of Paytm Group.

Paytm has had “a tremendous opportunity to increase payments” as a means of acquiring more customers and merchants, added Sharma.

Founded in 2010 as a platform to add credit to mobile phones, Paytm grew rapidly after US ridesharing company Uber Technologies Inc (UBER.N) listed it as a fast payment option. in India. Its use surged in 2016 when India suddenly banned high-value banknotes, spurring digital payments.

Paytm, headquartered on the outskirts of the capital New Delhi, offers services such as merchant payments, insurance and gold sales, movie and flight ticketing, as well as bank deposits and remittances.

($ 1 = 75 0400 Indian rupees)

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Reporting by Sankalp Phartiyal and Nupur Anand Editing by William Mallard and Mark Potter

Our standards: Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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Bitcoin Bulls May Lose $ 365 Million When Friday’s BTC Options Expire Thu, 25 Nov 2021 22:23:31 +0000

Bitcoins (BTC) Price action was not bullish despite an all-time high of $ 69,000 on November 10. Some argue that the descending channel formed 40 days ago is the dominant trend, and $ 56,000 is its current resistance.

BTC / USD price on FTX. Source: TradingView

Such a drop follows close scrutiny by U.S. regulators, after a November 1 report by the president’s financial markets task force suggested that stablecoin issuers in the United States should be subject to “appropriate federal oversight”, similar to banks and savings associations.

On November 12, the Bitcoin-backed exchange-traded fund (ETF) request was rejected by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. To justify the refusal, the regulator cited the lack of capacity of its participants to deter fraud and market manipulation in Bitcoin trading.

Most recently, on November 23, the chairman of the US Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs sent notices to several exchanges and stablecoin issuers. Consumer questions and investor protection on stablecoins suggest that lawmakers can prepare for a hearing on the matter.

Still, the bulls might have a different take on this news, as stablecoins are in no way necessary for Bitcoin to work. In addition, there is little the US government can do to suppress projects and developers wishing to relocate outside of its jurisdiction.

Bitcoin options are mostly bullish for the November 26 expiration

Despite falling 17% in the past 14 days from an all-time high of $ 69,000, Bitcoin’s call (call) options largely dominate the November 26 expiration.

Bitcoin options accumulate open interest for November 26. Source: Bybt

At first glance, the $ 1.9 billion in call (call) options dominate the weekly expiration by 113% versus the $ 885 million in put (put) instruments. But the call-to-put ratio of 2.13 is misleading as the recent drop will likely wipe out 90% of bullish bets.

For example, if the price of Bitcoin stays below $ 58,000 at 8:00 a.m. UTC on November 26, only $ 150 million of those call (buy) options will be available upon expiration. There is no value in the right to buy Bitcoin at $ 60,000 or $ 70,000 if it is trading below that price.

Bears can earn $ 365 million under $ 56,000

Below are the four most likely scenarios based on the current price action. For example, the data shows how many contracts will be available on November 26 for both bullish (call) and bearish (put) instruments. The imbalance in favor of each side represents the theoretical gain:

  • Below $ 56,000: 720 calls against 7,490 puts. Net income favors options downward (put) by $ 365 million.
  • Between $ 56,000 and $ 58,000: 2,630 calls versus 4,840 put options. The net result is $ 125 million in favor of bearish instruments (put).
  • Between $ 58,000 and $ 60,000: 3,600 calls against 3,850 put options. The net result is balanced.
  • Between $ 60,000 and $ 62,000: 6,180 calls against 2,340 put options. The net result moves in favor of call instruments (bull) of 230 million dollars.

This raw estimate considers call options used in bullish bets and put options exclusively in neutral to bearish trades. However, a trader could have sold a call option, thereby gaining negative exposure to Bitcoin above a specific price. Unfortunately, there is no easy way to estimate this effect.

Bulls Have Twice the Incentives to Defend $ 56,000

As the 40-day descending channel indicates, the bulls need to hold the resistance of $ 56,000 to avoid losing further momentum. Keep in mind that it took less than two weeks to bring Bitcoin down from $ 41,500 to $ 56,000 on October 10. Therefore, maintaining this level is crucial to validate the November 10 record.

Moreover, if the bulls manage to push the price of Bitcoin above $ 58,000, it will save them a potential loss of $ 365 million if the BTC bears gain the upper hand on the backs of regulatory winds. A mere 1.5% drop from the current $ 56,800 could give bears just enough confidence to instill even more pain.

The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Cointelegraph. Every investment and trade move involves risk. You should do your own research before making a decision.

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Nonprofits Accept Cryptocurrency As Bitcoin and Ether Values ​​Rise – Is It A Fad or the Next Frontier? Mon, 22 Nov 2021 15:29:42 +0000
The new cryptocurrency donation website at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

As Bitcoin and Ether values ​​near record highs, US nonprofits are in the peak months of their annual fundraising. Some charities hope to bring these two events together to increase the coffers that have took a hit during the pandemic.

This fall, Pacific Northwest nonprofits, including the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Marie’s place, an organization that supports homeless women and families, has started accepting donations of cryptocurrency directly.

While still in its early stages, the response so far has been muted: Fred Hutch reports two crypto giveaways, and Mary’s Place is working on the details with a donor who offers an “important match.” – in regular dollars – for crypto donations received during the next Donation Tuesday Event. 501 Commons, the nonprofit that hosts the GivingTuesday and GiveBIG events in Washington, said few nonprofits in the state directly accept crypto at this point.

“It’s brand new. In the world of philanthropy, things take a while, ”said Kelly O’Brien, vice president of philanthropy for Fred Hutch.

But the change is coming as cryptocurrencies become more and more mainstream.

“It’s brand new. In the world of philanthropy, things take time.

A new Pew Research Center A survey found that 86% of Americans say they have heard of crypto and 16% have traded or used blockchain money.

The crypto-philanthropy industry has also grown. The Giving Block and Engiven, two of the most popular crypto donation platforms, both launched in 2018 and a leading philanthropic news site published crypto user manual articles that year.

Three years later, The Giving Block expects to facilitate cryptocurrency donations directly to charities totaling between $ 100 million and $ 150 million, according to co-founder Pat Duffy. The platform also makes it possible to contribute to Donor Advised Funds (DAF), accounts from which people make charitable donations. The largest DAF that Duffy’s startup is working with is set to receive $ 500 million in crypto in 2021.

Fidelity Charitable, a leading provider of DAF, has received over $ 274 million in cryptocurrency contributions so far this year, nearly four times the amount in 2017, according to the Associated Press.

There are “a lot more people and money in crypto, so as the ecosystem grows the donation pool grows, the donor base grows,” Duffy said.

Call for crypto philanthropy

There is a big advantage in giving away crypto. If a donor makes a direct donation of cryptocurrency, they avoid paying a capital gains tax that would be incurred if they first sold the currency and then made the donation. And they still get the tax deduction for charitable donations.

“We want to give our donors options that are right for them,” said Linda Mitchell, spokesperson for Mary’s Place. “As services that accept and convert cryptocurrency become more and more mainstream, it is easy and safe for us to provide this option to the community to support our work. “

Fred hutch uses The Giving Block technology to manage donations, while Marie’s place uses Engiven.

A survey Last summer, Fidelity Charitable found that more than half of cryptocurrency holders didn’t know they could donate digital money, and many didn’t realize it was legal to do so. Almost half of those who donated said it was difficult to find charities that accepted crypto.

The cryptocurrency donation site at Mary’s Place.

David Beitel, CTO of Seattle’s Zillow Group, is also a Fred Hutch donor. He and his wife Joanna match donations, crypto and more, made at the center until the end of the year. He is a fan of alternative currency.

“It’s nice to see charities and businesses and businesses starting to embrace crypto as a currency,” Beitel said. “Along with having a growing supply and base of personal holdings, many have seen significant gains in their crypto holdings, so it’s nice to be able to unlock that money for trading and contributions.”

Reduce the risk

Despite the growing acceptance of cryptocurrency, there are still concerns about digital funds.

Critics call the environmental impacts of blockchains that mine the coins. Digiconomist calculates the energy and carbon footprint of blockchain networks and currently places Bitcoin’s energy consumption on par with the nation of Thailand.

Crypto proponents, however, question the fairness of the comparisons and note that traditional financial systems have their own significant energy consumption.

There are also concerns about the risks associated with digital funds. The head of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission this summer called the cryptocurrency market the “Wild West” and called for new regulations.

Duffy said that was a misconception and that his platform only trades cryptocurrencies listed by Gemini, a regulated U.S. company that reviews various options and operates a crypto exchange.

Most charities reduce the risks associated with the volatility of cryptocurrencies by immediately converting them to cash.

O’Brien said this was true for the Fred Hutch, wherever the donation is crypto, stocks, property or other assets, it is quickly turned into cash and distributed to support research.

“Our donors want their money to go straight to work,” she said.

The Arnold Building on the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center campus. (Photo by Fred Hutch)

The finances of crypto-philanthropy

Each year, philanthropic groups across the country ask donors to contribute on GivingTuesday, the Tuesday following Thanksgiving, which falls on November 30 of this year.

For the first time, GivingTuesday donors will be able to donate through the Washington State Portal managed by 501 Commons and via The Giving Block’s Crypto giving Tuesday to place. Donations made to either site will go to specific charities.

Nancy Long, Executive Director of 501 Commons, accepts donations through both platforms. Charities are struggling financially, she said, and a University of Washington study confirms this. Last year, nonprofits saw their funding decreases by 30% while the demand for many services increased.

Long, however, questions the impacts of the financial industry that thrives around philanthropy, including CFOs and crypto donations. She is worried about the loss of taxpayers’ money and the diversion of money to CFOs. Donors get a tax benefit from DAF contributions, even if the money stays in accounts indefinitely instead of going to nonprofits. An estimated $ 160 billion is tied up in DAF’s assets, According to research.

But if crypto donations “go to charities and those charities quickly convert them to cash, that’s great,” Long said.

Search by Fidelity Charitable found that crypto holders were more likely to make charitable donations than other investors. Duffy of The Giving Block says charities are starting to intentionally court people. For him, this makes sense: new tools make it easier to make and track crypto donations, it provides tax benefits, and its upward and downward volatility seems to inspire donations.

“It’s almost like it was done in a lab for charitable giving,” Duffy said.

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Crypto is not a currency – rather it is a stock option Sat, 20 Nov 2021 13:30:00 +0000

Crypto is a new class of asset. We call cryptocurrencies “coins” so a lot of people don’t know why someone would buy a coin when it is quite difficult to use it to make a purchase. Maybe one day in the future we can buy a steak dinner with our crypto earnings. But right now, you can’t do that. Law?

Well, let’s do a thought experiment. Say you walk into a Outback Steakhouse, and you have an appointment. You are currently in between jobs, but you are making money with all your crypto investments and you want to celebrate. So you two have a wonderful dinner, and then the bill comes in. You take out your smartphone and ask: “do you take Bitcoin (CRYPTO: BTC)? ”And the server says,“ No, this is the Outback. You have to pay in dollars, mate. “

Image source: Getty Images

So what are you doing? You say, “Oh. Okay.” And you press a few buttons on your smartphone. And your broker, Coinbase (NASDAQ: COIN), operates 24/7. So you sell Bitcoin for $ 100, which turns into cash. Then you press a few more buttons and transfer your money to your bank account. And you pay the bill in dollars.

So, did crypto pay for the steak dinner? Yes, he did, but not directly.

It doesn’t matter whether a restaurant accepts crypto or not

When my car died earlier this year, I had to buy a new one. I own shares in Carvana So this is where I decided to buy. (By the way, amazing customer service – I’m a very satisfied customer.) One thing I did not to do – they would have thought I was crazy – was to try to pay for my car with my shares in Carvana. I had to sell my shares on my brokerage account and wait three days to get my money back.

The major crypto exchanges are much, much faster than the exchanges. If I tried to pay for a steak dinner with my Carvana shares, that would be a really embarrassing conversation. If I said “I’ll have the money on Wednesday,” I would do the dishes in the kitchen.

Crypto right now looks a lot like gold, silver, or a company’s stocks. It may not (yet) be considered a currency. But it’s certainly a valuable asset, and it can be turned into dollars. And crypto exchanges are so fast – and they operate around the clock – that Bitcoin’s failure to actually serve as currency (again) is almost meaningless. You can turn it into dollars in a matter of minutes.

What if crypto becomes worthless?

Personally, I think a lot of cryptocurrencies are worthless, just like a lot of stocks are worthless. But Bitcoin has a market cap of $ 1.1 trillion. It is the opposite of worthless.

Of course, it could be overvalued, and it probably is. (A lot of stocks are also overvalued.) Bitcoin has already seen at least two serious crashes. I’m sure he will have more. High-end stocks are also often volatile. Why would crypto be any different?

Bitcoin Price Table

Bitcoin price given by YCharts.

Bitcoin almost hit $ 20,000 at the end of 2017, then plunged below $ 10,000, and it stayed there for a while. And then, in the fall of 2020, Pay Pal announced that it will allow people to buy and sell crypto on Venmo. And Square said he was buying Bitcoin. These two announcements from the giants of the fintech world sent the coin into the stratosphere.

Why is crypto valuable?

All value is based on supply and demand. The incredible wealth that some people have gained from crypto makes other people take the risk that other types of crypto might do the same.

Something similar was common in the dot-com era of the late 90s. An internet startup would pay people minimum wage (or whatever small amount of money they could get by) and encourage people to work in exchange for stock options in the company. If the business was successful, you would be a millionaire when your options were vested, potentially selling them for a lot of money. More often than not, the options ended up being worthless.

Crypto is really like that. A tech start-up working on blockchain technology may have very little money. But it can make some very smart people work for her by paying them with the company coin. If the coin seems to be successful, other people will want to own it as well. And so a company does everything in its power to drive up the price of the part. Indeed, the coin is a mechanism to pay the software engineers and others who bet on this start-up.

When you buy the company coin, of course you do not own any company stock. It is a private company (or sometimes even some non-profit entity). But the entrepreneurs who started the business really want the coin to rise in value (because they own a lot, a lot more than you).

Crypto is an optional blockchain investment

Once you realize how revolutionary blockchain technology is, it flips the switch on risk. If you research this industry, you will find that blockchain is going to disrupt huge, multi-billion dollar companies. Microsoft (NASDAQ: MSFT) could be in trouble, for example (again).

In the 20th century, the internet radically changed the technological balance of power away from Microsoft and its control of the office. Microsoft has survived and thrived by becoming a powerhouse in the cloud. And now peer-to-peer networks threaten that dominance as well. And it’s not just tech companies, blockchain can revolutionize many industries, including major sectors of the economy like healthcare and finance.

I wouldn’t want to ignore the blockchain race or pretend it’s irrelevant. If you have big investments in the current paradigm, do you really want to ignore all of these disruptors?

This article represents the opinion of the author, who may disagree with the “official” recommendation position of a premium Motley Fool consulting service. We are heterogeneous! Challenging an investment thesis – even one of our own – helps us all to think critically about investing and make decisions that help us become smarter, happier, and richer.

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Form 8.3 – Meggitt plc Tue, 09 Nov 2021 15:25:12 +0000

Regulatory News

09 Nov 2021 15:15
09 Nov 2021 15:15

FORM 8.3



Rule 8.3 of the OPA Code (the “Code”)


(a) Full name of the discloser:

Millenium International Management LP

(b) Owner or controller of the disclosed interests and short positions, if different from 1 (a):

The designation of nominees or vehicle companies is insufficient. For a trust, the trustee (s), settlor and beneficiaries must be named.

(vs) Name of the offeror / officer for the titles concerned by this form:

Use a separate form for each offeror / beneficiary

Meggitt plc

(D) If an exempt fund manager is related to an offeror / offeror, indicate this and specify the identity of the offeror / offeror:

(e) Date of the position held / of the transaction undertaken:

For an open position disclosure, indicate the last practicable date before the disclosure

8e November 2021

(F) In addition to the company in 1 (c) above, does the discloser make any disclosures with respect to any other party to the offer?

If it is a cash offer or a possible cash offer, indicate “N / A”



If there are positions or rights to be subscribed to be disclosed in more than one category of relevant securities of the offeror or the offender named in point 1 (c), copy table 2 (a) or (b) (depending on the case) for each additional category of relevant securities. Security.

(a) Interests and short positions on the relevant securities of the offeror or the offender to which the disclosure relates as a result of the transaction (if applicable)

Relevant safety class:

5p ordinary (GB0005758098)


Short positions





(1) Relevant securities held and / or controlled:

(2) Derivatives settled in cash:

17 751 102


(3) Equity-settled derivatives (including options) and buy / sell agreements:


17 751 102


All interest and short positions must be disclosed.

Details of all open derivative positions settled in equities (including traded options) or relevant securities buy or sell agreements should be provided on a Supplemental Form 8 (Open Positions).

(b) Subscription rights for new securities (including options for directors and other employees)

Class of securities concerned in relation to which there is a subscription right:

Details, including the nature of the rights concerned and the relevant percentages:


When there have been transactions on more than one category of relevant securities of the offeror or offender named in point 1 (c), copy table 3 (a), (b), (c) or (d ) (as the case may be) for each class of securities concerned processed.

The currency of all prices and other monetary amounts must be indicated.

(a) Purchases and sales

Relevant safety class

Buy Sell

Number of titles

Unit price (GBP)

(b) Cash-settled derivative transactions

Relevant safety class

Product Description

eg CFD

Nature of the transaction

For example, open / close a long / short position, increase / decrease a long / short position

Number of benchmark titles

Price per unit


Exchange of shares

Increase a long position




Exchange of shares

Increase a long position

6 386



Exchange of shares

Increase a long position




Exchange of shares

Reduce a long position




Exchange of shares

Reduce a long position




Exchange of shares

Increase a long position



(vs) Equity-settled derivative transactions (including options)

(I) Writing, selling, buying or modifying

Relevant safety class

Product Description for example purchase option

Write, buy, sell, vary, etc.

Number of securities to which the option relates

Unit exercise price


for example American, European, etc.

Expiration date

Option money paid / received per unit

(ii) Exercise

Relevant safety class

Product Description

for example purchase option

Exercise / exercised against

Number of titles

Unit exercise price

(D) Other operations (including subscription of new securities)

Relevant safety class

Nature of the transaction

e.g. subscription, conversion


Unit price (if applicable)


(a) Compensation and other trade agreements

Details of any indemnity or option agreement, or any agreement or arrangement, formal or informal, relating to the relevant securities which may be an inducement to trade or refrain from trading entered into by the person making the disclosure and any party to the offer or any person acting in concert with a party to the offer:

Irrevocable commitments and letters of intent should not be included. If there are no such agreements, arrangements or understandings, indicate “none”


(b) Agreements, arrangements or understandings relating to options or derivatives

Details of any agreement, arrangement or understanding, formal or informal, between the person making the disclosure and any other person regarding:

(I) the voting rights of any security concerned under any option; Where

(ii) voting rights or the future acquisition or disposal of any relevant security to which a derivative is referenced:

If there are no such agreements, arrangements or understandings, indicate “none”


(vs) Attachments

Is an additional form 8 (open positions) attached?


Disclosure Date:

9e November 2021

Name of the contact:

Milos Naumovic

Phone number:

+44 203 650 8203

Public disclosures under Rule 8 of the Code should be made to a regulatory information service and should also be emailed to the Acquisitions Panel at [email protected]. The Panel’s Market Surveillance Unit is available for consultation regarding the Code’s disclosure requirements on +44 (0) 20 7638 0129.

The Code can be viewed on the Group’s website at

Copyright Business Wire 2021

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Still on Osinbajo’s call to float the naira Sun, 07 Nov 2021 23:12:56 +0000

What other options do we have to increase the supply of foreign currency to the Nigerian economy, or do we continue to borrow foreign currency from international lenders to meet the insatiable demand from Nigerians many of whom use the dollar as a store of value?

Nigerians currently have $ 16 billion in their home bank accounts and that does not add the dollar that is held in private fortresses in houses or buried in cemeteries and other strange places, or those held by Nigerians in foreign countries (Pandora Papers).

The main official source of foreign exchange supply in Nigeria remains revenues from crude oil sales, which currently stand at 95%, and with crude oil production falling to 1.4 million barrels per day, from more of two million, which tells you how the forex supply has declined.

Then, if you consider that 450,000 barrels of oil are taken out of that 1.4 million and traded for refined oil, that tells you that 95% of Nigeria’s foreign exchange revenue currently comes from around 950,000 barrels of oil. gross per day.

To make matters worse, the refined oil obtained by trading the 450,000 barrels of crude oil per day is obtained at current international prices but sold in local currency at non-market rates.

This means that from the already depleted revenues from the sale of 950,000 barrels of crude oil per day, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation and the federal government must use scarce foreign currency to make up the difference between imported gasoline and the price. to which it is sold locally. .

This leaves the federal government with only one option to maintain the supply of dollars in the local market, the continued borrowing of foreign currency from international lenders at interest to supply the Central Bank of Nigeria, which in its turn. turn, uses this to meet the almost insatiable supply for the forex.

The main unofficial source of foreign exchange in Nigeria remains remittances from Nigerians in the diaspora, and although this ranges from $ 16 billion to $ 23 billion per year, the bulk of this does not go through official channels.

Only those with no options will receive currency inflows today and trade them at the official CBN rate of N 420 instead of the parallel market rate of N 570 to the dollar, and that is why we have over $ 16 billion frozen in residential accounts in Nigerian banks.

Just imagine that the federal government recently borrowed 4 billion euros at an interest rate of 6 or 7%, and which will be used to finance the official Forex market and yet you have over $ 16 billion in bank accounts. homes of Nigerians collecting dust and cobwebs.

Now why isn’t the solution for the federal government to forcibly acquire the $ 16 billion in home bank accounts as some have suggested and the CBN rightly rejected it despite the temptations? , something needs to be done to increase the dollar supply.

When you add currencies stored in Nigerian private homes and other unusual places across the country, and then the extra billions of dollars stashed in offshore locations, the responsibility of any sane government is to come up with measures or policies to increase. the supply of dollars.

We can cry as much as we want over the diversification of the Nigerian economy and for having other sources of dollar currency supply, but this requires long term planning and putting in place the right policies with the will. to make and implement tough decisions.

So, for an import dependent economy where even gasoline which is imported at exorbitant cost and subsidized for sale locally is easily smuggled and sold across the border at considerable profit in neighboring countries, you cannot do a lot.

Only middlemen and those who engage in arbitrage currently benefit from the status quo, even going so far as to buy the forex that Nigeria borrows from international lenders at official interest rates and then sell it to those who have it. need at parallel market rate.

Like the fuel subsidy enjoyed by those who get subsidized gasoline imported at the local market rate only to sell it in neighboring countries at the international market rate, the federal government has a long history of subsidizing the wrong people. ie profiteers and this is what happens with the forex grant.

The same goes for the 13% bypass of crude oil, the intervention of NDDC, the Niger Delta Ministry of Affairs and even the upcoming implementation of the 3% allocation to host communities in under the Petroleum Industry Act of 2021 which was intended for oil-producing communities but which have all been or will soon be hijacked.

So what measures can the federal government take in the short term to dramatically increase the supply of dollars and possibly increase the value of the naira against other foreign currencies? The most obvious is to allow the naira to find its real value against these foreign currencies and in this I agree with Vice President Yemi Osinbajo.

This will have the immediate effect of drastically dropping the value of the naira with an impact on the prices of all imported items and negatively affecting those on fixed income, but to let the current situation continue is to end up in the situations. Zimbabwe and Lebanon. .

On the other hand, the floating exchange rate will allow the forex to be sourced from other sources such as those who hold dollars in home bank accounts and safes hidden in private fortresses and forex holdings in offshore sites, aka the Pandora Papers.

In addition, currency inflows from diasporic sources will also become not only official, but also exchanged through official channels, thus ensuring that there is a unified exchange rate and that all transactions incur official fees and taxes.

It will also downplay the arbitrage market, currently the scourge of the growing gap between official and parallel rates that creates overnight millionaires and billionaires who, due to their illegal income, end up failing. pay no tax.

The pressure of being the sole or main currency provider currently supported by the CBN with all its implications and the interference of government officials and the influence exerted by the CBN and bank officials over the allocation of foreign currency will be reduced. considerably.

Relieved of the burden of being the main provider of foreign exchange in the official market, the CBN can then begin to build up its foreign exchange reserves and be able to intervene on the supply side when the opportunity demands to strengthen or weaken the value of the naira.

But floating the naira and leaving it to market demand and supply will require the federal government to do more to increase its foreign exchange supply as well, and since the federal government currently derives 95% of its foreign exchange supply from selling crude oil, what can be done to get a forex increase from this source?

The easiest way would be for the federal government to ask the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries to increase its oil production from 1.4 million barrels of crude oil per day to at least a minimum of, say, 1.9 billion. , a step he recently took. but was rejected by OPEC for the simple fact that Nigeria is not even able to meet its production quota of 1.4 million barrels per day.

Why is this so? What problems are responsible for it? How can these problems be treated? Considering these issues is talk for another day, but suffice it to say that these issues can be identified and addressed to ensure that daily oil production meets but exceeds Nigeria’s OPEC quota.

Taking it a step further, Nigeria will have to ask itself why it remains a member of OPEC and is tied to a daily production quota for a product that the whole world agrees will not be an energy source in 30 years. at age 50 due to climatic conditions. impact of fossil fuels.

Major consumers of fossil fuels are committed to zero carbon emissions and are committed to embracing renewable energy sources. So it makes no sense to have 40 years of oil reserves when in 20 to 30 years these reserves will have little or no value?

Ultimately, the world is in the throes of an energy crisis right now and now is not the time to limit oil production but to increase it and the OPEC philosophy as long as it goes against it. it is not in the interest of Nigeria and its current resort to borrowing from abroad to increase the supply of foreign exchange.

The other problem is that some of the Nigerian joint venture partners have put their oil lands up for sale, especially in coastal and shallow waters, and the key here is Shell Petroleum Development Company which is asking $ 2 billion for its oil assets. seeking to focus solely on its deep water oil production.

To ensure that it can increase its oil production and profit from rising oil prices, the federal government should negotiate directly with Shell and purchase its onshore and shallow water oil areas for an upfront payment of $ 1 billion. dollars per day, the balance being spread over time.

Rather than handing over these oil acreage from Shell to the newly incorporated giant called NNPC Limited, these oil acreage should be turned over to NPDC which should be removed from NNPC Ltd and listed directly on the Nigerian Stock Exchange.

NNPC Ltd is a monster with too many dead assets (refineries and pipelines) and liabilities (pensions and debts), and thus freeing NPDC to focus solely on producing oil and gas for a world that is in the throes of a energy crisis for the foreseeable future will enable the company to operate according to best market practices and enable Nigeria to position a corporate asset for the expected vacuum that will occur as international oil companies shift to sources of energy. alternative energy.

The increase in oil production resulting from the pumping of 3 million barrels of oil per day well in excess of the OPEC quota will allow Nigeria to increase its supply of foreign exchange, increase the value of its local currency and to use the income to propel its young population into the digital technology space.

  • Omose is a lawyer based in Lagos

Copyright PUNCH.

All rights reserved. This material and any other digital content on this website may not be reproduced, published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or in part without the express prior written permission of PUNCH.

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Friday’s $ 540 million Ethereum options expiration favors traders with $ 5,000 targets Wed, 03 Nov 2021 22:30:57 +0000

Ether (ETH) the bulls are probably very happy with the 368% gains accumulated so far in 2021 and it looks like not a day goes by without altcoin hitting a new all-time high.

Even with Ether on track to $ 5,000, there are still many concerns about the network’s ability to absorb the strong demand from the decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFT) industry.

Another potential setback to come is the US Treasury report on stablecoin regulations released on November 1. The report underscored the need for Congress “to provide appropriate federal prudential oversight on a consistent and comprehensive basis.”

In addition to this, competing networks offering interoperability with large DeFi projects are increasingly adopted, both in terms of total locked-in value (TVL) and market share on smart contracts. As an example, this week Solana (SOL) hit a new high of $ 236, overtaking Cardano (ADA) to become the fourth largest cryptocurrency.

According to data from CryptoSlam, secondary sales of Solana NFT Markets reached $ 495 million in the past three months, but despite this, the Ethereum blockchain remains the most popular, with NFT secondary sales exceeding $ 1.76 billion in October.

Ether price on Coinbase in USD. Source: TradingView

By managing to stay ahead of the competition and creating a way to solve the scalability problem by migrating to a proof-of-stake network, Ethereum has attracted large investors. This includes the owner of the Dallas Mavericks Marc Cuban, the Houston Firefighters Relief and Retirement Fund, and billionaire Barry Sternlicht.

The expiration of the $ 540 million Ether options on November 5 may seem like an undisputed victory for the Bulls, but that was not the case a few weeks ago.

Ether options group together interest open for November 5. Source: Bybt

At first glance, the $ 300 billion put (put) options dominate the weekly expiration by 20% compared to the $ 240 million call (buy) instruments. Still, the 0.80 call-to-put ratio is misleading as the recent rally will likely wipe out most bearish bets.

For example, if the price of Ether remains above $ 4,500 at 8:00 AM UTC on November 5, only $ 1.5 million of those put (put) options will be available upon expiration. There is no value in a right to sell Ether at $ 4,500 if it is trading above that price.

Bulls are comfortable above $ 4,500

Below are the four most likely scenarios for the $ 540 million expiration on November 5. The imbalance in favor of each side represents the theoretical profit. In other words, depending on the expiration price, the amount of buy (buy) and sell (sell) contracts that become active varies:

  • Between $ 4,300 and $ 4,400: 6,870 calls against 6,000 put options. The net result is balanced between bulls and bears.
  • Between $ 4,400 and $ 4,600: 13,750 calls against 350 put options. The net result is $ 60 million in favor of call instruments (bull).
  • Between $ 4,600 and $ 4,700: 18,500 calls against 50 put options. The net result is $ 85 million in favor of call instruments (bull).
  • Above $ 4,700: 22,800 calls against 0 put. The net result is complete dominance, with the bulls profiting by $ 107 million.

This raw estimate considers call options used in bullish bets and put options exclusively in neutral to bearish trades. However, this oversimplification ignores more complex investment strategies.

For example, a trader could have sold a put option, thereby gaining positive exposure to Bitcoin above a specific price. But, unfortunately, there is no easy way to estimate this effect.

Bears need 6% price correction to reduce their loss

The only way for bears to avoid losses on Friday’s expiration is to pressure the price of ether below $ 4,400 on November 5, down 6% from the current $ 4,660. . So, unless there is news or worrying events announced before the weekly options deadline, bulls are expected to earn $ 85 million or more.

Traders should also take into account that during bull runs the amount of effort a seller needs to impact the price is immense and generally ineffective. Currently, options market data points to a huge advantage in call (call) options, fueling bullish bets for Ether, raising expectations of a rally to $ 5,000.

The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Cointelegraph. Every investment and trade move involves risk. You should do your own research before making a decision.

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Global Escalator Cleaning Machines Market Report 2021-2026 Mon, 01 Nov 2021 16:30:00 +0000

DUBLIN, November 1, 2021 / PRNewswire / – The “Escalator Cleaning Machines Market – Global Outlook and Forecast 2021-2026” report was added to offer.

The global escalator cleaning machine market size to observe $ 1,335.00 million by 2026, with a CAGR of over 11.36% during the forecast period.

The study examines the current escalator cleaning machines market scenario and its market dynamics for the period 2021-2026. It covers a detailed overview of several catalysts, restraints and trends for market growth. The study presents both demand and supply aspects of the market. It profiles and reviews the major companies operating in the market.

The global escalator cleaning machines market has grown steadily over the past few years and the growth is expected to continue during the forecast period. The increasing trend towards urbanization and the urban way of life is one of the major factors driving the demand for escalator cleaners.

There was a drop in the level of production and demand in the first and second quarters of 2020 due to lockdown restrictions imposed in various countries due to COVID-19. However, as soon as the economy started to experience a recovery trend, demand started to increase due to increased security standards and various COVID-19 protocols.


Walk-behind escalator cleaning machine dominates the industry by product. The main reasons for this are its low cost, ease of use and economy for small scale installation.

Nowadays, many suppliers have started to offer machines with wet and dry cleaning functions. Since this feature is new and effective, it is expected to experience the highest CAGR of over 14% during the forecast period.

Airport and air travel will increase in global and regional economies, with APAC and the Middle East efficient. Modernizing airports, launching many completely new airports and increasing the number of low cost carriers are driving growth. This in turn will increase the market demand for escalator cleaning machines in this industry.

Direct sales channels dominate about 63.32% of escalator cleaning machine market share. It allows consumers to buy products directly from suppliers, sell their products at lower prices, and gain competitive advantage.


Growth in construction activity and expansion of commercial areas are driving demand for professional cleaning equipment.

North America was the largest market for escalator cleaners, with a share of 31.71% in 2020. A very stable economy, technology awareness, large commercial industrial base are the main factors propelling the elevator industry and escalators.

APAC region is one of the fastest growing regions in the world market, which is supported by strong economic development in India and China.

In France, the growth of the travel and tourism industry has resulted in an increase in hotel occupancy rates of 75%. The increase in tourist traffic in the country has resulted in an increased need for cleaning and maintenance, which in turn is driving the demand for escalator cleaners.


The global escalator cleaning machine market is highly competitive with the presence of a considerable number of suppliers. The main suppliers in the market are Alfred Karcher, Duplex cleaning machines, Eureka, HEFTER Cleantech, JUMA Reinigungstechnik, Nilfisk Group, Rosemor International, Columbus, Roots Multiclean, MACH and Henan Pivot Machinery.


  • Rising labor expenditure in several developed regions, the growing shift to robotics and automation, and the trend towards less human intervention are the major factors driving the demand for automatic escalator cleaning machines.
  • The most important advantage of the walk-behind escalator cleaning machine is that it is generally a more economical option.
  • Commercial cleaning, industrial cleaning and janitorial services are concentrated in developed industrial economies such as Australia, Canada, Japan, the United States and the Western Europe.
  • The main factor hampering the growth of commercial cleaning equipment is cheap labor in less developed countries.
  • Global players such as Nilfisk, Karcher and Duplex dominate the industry due to their extensive infrastructure and R&D facilities.

Key suppliers

  • Alfred Karcher
  • Duplex cleaning machines
  • Eureka
  • HEFTER Cleantech
  • JUMA Reinigungstechnik
  • Nilfisk Group
  • Rosemor International
  • Columbus
  • Multiclean roots
  • MACH
  • Henan pivot machines

Main topics covered:

1 Research methodology

2 Research objectives

3 Research process

4 Scope and coverage
4.1 Market definition
4.2 Reference year
4.3 Scope of the study

5 Hypotheses and caveats in the report
5.1 Key caveats
5.2 Currency conversion
5.3 Market derivation

6 Market overview

7 Presentation
7.1 Overview
7.1.1 Case study
7.1.2 Transition to urbanization: driving force of the market
7.1.3 Parameters Affecting Market Growth
7.2 Raw material overview
7.3 Construction overview
7.3.1 Commercial construction
7.3.2 Construction of public infrastructure
7.4 Trade issues between the United States and China
7.5 COVID-19 impact assessment
7.5.1 Impact of COVID-19: supply side
7.5.2 Impact of COVID-19: demand side
7.6 Frequently asked questions
7.6.1 How fast will the escalator cleaning machine market grow? What will be the value in 2026?
7.6.2 What are the factors driving the demand for Automatic Escalator Cleaning Machines market?
7.6.3 How is the Escalator Cleaning Machine Market Vary by Region?
7.6.4 Who are the main end users of the market?

8 Market opportunities and trends
8.1 Automation and IoT Enhancement Product Features
8.2 The advent of robotic / automatic cleaning equipment
8.3 Industry 4.0 To Boost The Escalator Market

9 market growth catalysts
9.1 Long-term growth in the travel and tourism industry
9.2 Growth of vertical buildings
9.3 An aging population is driving the demand for escalators
9.4 Shopping centers and shopping centers generating market demand

10 market restrictions
10.1 Poor knowledge and adoption of cleaning standards in emerging countries
10.2 High cost of supply and installation
10.3 Volatility of commodity prices
10.4 Longer replacement cycles

11 Market landscape
11.1 Market overview
11.2 Key information
11.3 Overview of the application
11.4 Market Size and Forecast
11.5 Market by Product
11.6 Market by sales channel
11.7 Market by end user
11.8 Market by Cleaning Process
11.9 Market by geography
11.10 Analysis of the five forces

12 Product
12.1 Market Overview and Growth Driver
12.2 Market overview
12.3 Reverse
12.4 Automatic

13 Cleaning process
13.1 Market Overview and Growth Driver
13.2 Market overview
13.3 Wet cleaning
13.4 Dry cleaning
13.5 Dry and wet cleaning

14 End user
14.1 Market Overview and Growth Driver
14.2 Market overview
14.2.1 Key information
14.3 Shopping centers and shopping centers
14.4 Airports and public services
14.5 Hospitality

15 Sales channel
15.1 Market Overview and Growth Driver
15.2 Market overview
15.3 Direct sales
15.4 Indirect sales

For more information on this report, visit

Media contact:

Research and markets
Laura Wood, senior
[email protected]

For EST office hours, call + 1-917-300-0470
For USA / CAN call toll free + 1-800-526-8630
For GMT office hours, call + 353-1-416-8900

US Fax: 646-607-1907
Fax (outside the United States): + 353-1-481-1716

SOURCE Research and Markets

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