Neoclassical Growth Model – Intersindical RTVV Mon, 11 Oct 2021 18:33:15 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Neoclassical Growth Model – Intersindical RTVV 32 32 Canadian financial markets struggle to invest in our economy Sun, 10 Oct 2021 15:12:05 +0000 Reading time: 4 minutes

Alarm bells should ring in Canada. Business, industrial and direct foreigner investments have been pathetic over the past decade, with no reason to believe there will be a turnaround anytime soon.

As Noted By Steven Globerman, Contributor to Troy Media, Western Washington University, “From 2010 to 2019, the growth rate of investment in Canada fell significantly below that of the United States and many other developed countries.

If there is one thing that distinguishes rich nations from poor nations, it is the presence of capital investments. The marginal product of a man’s labor – his equilibrium wage in the market – comes from the capital on which he can apply.

Capital per worker is also central to neoclassical and modern theories of growth. How nations grow or stagnate comes down to a debate about the various factors that drive investment: property rights, the rule of law, savings rates, low taxes and high trust communities, for example.

Far from being something to be demonized, capital markets are brilliant enablers of resource allocation and investment. Third world countries often suffer from the absence or the narrowness of secondary markets. These are the stock markets where owners and potential buyers trade in liquid stocks that are already in circulation. Broad participation facilitates price efficiency, transparency and investor confidence.

The question we must answer, then, is why Canada’s financial markets – although modern and subject to relative legal stability – struggle to channel capital into the domestic economy. Without competitive and dynamic public markets for bonds and stocks, investors either look elsewhere or rely on illiquid, lumpy and less efficient private equity deals.

Consider that 2019, before the COVID-19 recession, initial public offerings in Canada were the lowest in a decade. As reported by the National Crowdfunding and Fintech Association, the Canadian and American markets are losing out to Asian competitors: “In 2018, 51% of all equity raised by [initial public offerings or IPOs] went to Asian companies. Today, more than half of listed companies in the world are Asian.

The TSX, Canada’s main stock exchange, has around numerous companies listed today as ten years ago and its sister TSX-V is about 20 percent less.

In the United States, the problem is even more pronounced. The total number sharp in the mid-90s and is now down about 50 percent – although larger company size makes up for this in terms of total market capitalization.

Companies that choose to forgo IPOs or delisting do so for many reasons. However, Andras Marosi of the University of Alberta affirmed in the Financial and quantitative analysis journal “The cost of regulatory compliance is a driving force behind the phenomenon of darkness. In other words, companies are finding that the benefits are less likely to outweigh the rising admission fees.

A symptom of rising barriers to entry began in July in the United States. The Nasdaq Private Market, a transaction facilitator for nominally private companies, has grown rapidly since its inception in 2013. It is now partnering with other companies for a separate platform that will be a quasi-public exchange but with fewer barriers to compliance. This doesn’t help the retail investor, but it follows the growing size and number of unlisted companies that still attract institutional investors for partial ownership.

The best that regulators can do to support the growth and proliferation of capital markets is to build confidence and provide access. It means nothing more than a light touch focused on clear title deeds, dispute resolution and transparent reporting. With rare exceptions, such as national security concerns, stock exchanges and buyers should be the only ones to decide which companies and securities can and cannot be publicly listed.

The private Nasdaq market is just the most visible presence of alternative secondary markets. Even if regulators wanted to, they would be unable to regulate new fundraising initiatives such as crowdfunding. Attempts to do so only push activities abroad, limiting access and reducing innovation.

A CD Howe Institute report published in May recommends the removal of “rules and regulations that hold back innovation and productivity in Canada’s financial sector.” Although superior financial markets are not a silver bullet for economic albatrosses such as budget deficits and equalization burdens, the financial sector “has the unique ability to boost both its own productivity and that of other sectors.”

It’s here that regulatory sandboxes make sense. They involve the removal of certain regulations for a period – two years, for example – with a review at the end to see if reinstatement is even necessary. Cryptocurrency exchange and crowdfunding spaces are calling for such regulatory relief so that they can grow and connect in Canada.

One of the advantages of Canada over the United States in this regard is at least some decentralization. Some provinces, like Alberta and Quebec, resist federal government unconstitutionality to resume capital markets. Nationalization would be a recipe for awkwardness and crony capitalism centered on Ottawa and Toronto.

As long as the provinces’ hold on regulation remains, they can make their regulatory environments attractive to new, larger and innovative financial markets.

Movements towards decentralization can bring a new generation of investors into the fold and increase transparency. These markets can then send valuable capital to where it will get the best returns, their much sought-after primary function in Canada.

Fergus Hodgson is Associate Researcher at the Frontier Center for Public Policy.

Fergus is a Troy Media thought leader. For interview requests, click here.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by columnists and contributors are the sole responsibility of the authors. They do not inherently or expressly reflect the views, opinions and / or positions of our post.

© Troy Media
Troy Media is an editorial content provider for the media and its own community media hosted across Canada.

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Who made up the 16 million guitar learners over the past 2 years Thu, 07 Oct 2021 13:02:15 +0000

The pandemic has given us all a little more time at home and many Americans, about 16 million Americans according to a new study by Fender, used some of that time to pick up and finally learn to play the guitar. guitar. But who are these new players and where will they learn to play? The guitar company has now shared some data to better identify who the new generation of guitarists are.

The study was originally commissioned by the Fender Musical Instruments Corporation (FMIC) in coordination with YouGov® and the study found that seven percent of the US population aged 13 to 64 started playing within the past two years. Of those, 62% cited the COVID-19 lockdown as a major motivator in their decision to pick up the guitar. In total, more than 10,000 people were interviewed to better understand the needs and desires of the budding guitarist.

According to the New Guitar Player Landscape Analysis, 72% of new guitar players are between the ages of 13 and 34. And among these, the majority of respondents had played another instrument before guitar, with piano / keyboards and bass being the most popular instruments.

A solid 58% of users actively use TikTok every week to find and consume guitar content. Family also plays a role in those looking for the guitar, with 33 percent of current beginners having a family member who has owned a guitar.

The study also showed a change in motivation to play, with 67% of players having full-time careers and viewing the guitar more as a hobby than a passion.

When it comes to how new players perceive themselves, black women, teens, adults 40+, and newbie players all rank as “self-improvement” when it comes to their game. 53% of beginners spend two hours or less practicing per week, but on average, they think that practicing four hours per week for one or two years will allow them to “get good” at the guitar. And the survey found that those who aspire to play the guitar see a lot more obstacles than those who have already started playing. Another issue for the beginning guitarist is the time it takes to learn and grow as a player with 17% of them believing that a reward opportunity would help build their interest.

And finally, of the 16 million new players, roughly one in four has stalled in their progress, showing that a lifelong learning support system is crucial to maintaining player interest.

Fender has since taken the data and applied it to their existing programs which have been dedicated to supporting new players.

“The pandemic has rapidly accelerated the already healthy growth of beginning guitarists and we have accelerated our investment in tools to support them,” said Andy Mooney, CEO of Fender. “Our suite of beginner tools allows new players to enjoy the process of learning the music they love and maybe creating music we all love.”

The Fender Play Foundation ™ has been working with Los Angeles Unified, the 2nd largest school district in the United States since 2020 to expand music education programs in their schools and hopes to expand to school districts across the country in the years to to come.

Realizing that younger people are also discovering their music and hobbies digitally, Fender joined TikTok last month, with #Fender and #GuitarTok accounts quickly gaining audiences.

They also launched their Beginner’s Hub which helps demystify what can be intimidating in acquiring a new instrument and the Fender Play® online learning app helping guide players through guitar lessons, bass and ukulele. Artists from various genres also joined us to provide a first-person preview.

The Hub also helps you take the first steps, starting with a Find Your Fender quiz that will help you match your tastes and aesthetic interests to suggest the perfect instrument for learning. There are also organized packages for Electric and Acoustic Guitars, Bass and Ukulele, also depending on skill level.

So, with a resurgence of interest in the guitar over the past couple of years, Fender’s Beginner’s Hub removes some of the barriers early in practicing and allows those who do to maintain their interest and get things done.

30 Most Underrated Hard Rock + Metal Guitarists

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Affluence and freedom: an environmental history of political ideas, by Pierre Charbonnier Thu, 07 Oct 2021 02:19:52 +0000

It might have been appropriate to include the word “extractivism” in the title of this book. It is certainly at the heart of his project to discover the material basis of central ideas of modernity such as rights, autonomy and democracy (and the invention of “society” and “the economy”).

Pierre Charbonnier’s historical reading of these founding notions literally brings them back “to earth”. The result is an impressive, forensic analysis of the exploitation of people and places within and beyond Europe that made possible such liberal-capitalist ideas, written in a context where “We inherit of a world that no available political category is designed to handle, and therefore we are faced with a seemingly impossible task.

In modernity, nature is transformed from a realm of meaning into a storehouse of means. The economy dissociated itself from ecology, although in reality dependent on it – especially at the beginning of the modern period, which saw the birth of capitalism and imperialism. This is the price others pay for our freedom. As Charbonnier says: “Can autonomy be bought, a luxury that one can afford when one illegally takes advantage of the wealth of others?”

He goes on to examine what freedom looks like in a collapsing world. Here he wisely avoids both “angelic enthusiasm and dark end-time prophecies”, seeing dead ends both in the techno-optimistic “greening of business as usual” and in the apocalyptic of certain policies. green. Both offer fixed rather than open visions of a regenerative and sustainable future, and both lack a role for collective human action.

Charbonnier is inspired by the work of ecological economics. Orthodox neoclassical models at best offer an incomplete understanding of the human economy. Notions of wealth and freedom based on such models are unstable, as they resemble precise descriptions of a unicorn’s biology that are internally consistent but of limited use in the real world. The argument here is based on a critique not only of productivism but of “the very idea that the productive scheme is a good description of what is happening between the non-human environment and us”. This opens up the possibility of non-instrumental relationships to the world, a space that can include cultural, moral, aesthetic, educational, and even spiritual relationships. Charbonnier sketches a form of eco-socialism inspired by Karl Polanyi as the most promising way to achieve transformations beyond growth-obsessed and carbon-based capitalism. Struggles for freedom are now based on struggles for land.

Do Freedom and Democracy Require Wealth? While liberal democracy appears to be linked to the unevenly distributed economic growth produced by globalized capitalism, this does not necessarily mean that wealth is a prerequisite for other conceptualizations of freedom, autonomy and democracy. Ultimately, as many environmental thinkers and activists point out, what we need is not mastery of nature, but rather collective (and ideally democratically determined) mastery of our relationship with nature. This means, according to Charbonnier, that “the autonomy project is now based on the fastest possible elimination of [the] wealth mechanisms ”. I stayed with the thought that what we need is not just a reframing of autonomy, but a more serious engagement with human vulnerability and dependence as constitutive of the beings that we are.

John Barry is Professor of Green Political Economy and Co-Director of the Center for Sustainability, Equality and Climate Action, Queen’s University, Belfast.

Affluence and Freedom: An Environmental History of Political Ideas
By Pierre Charbonnier, translated by Andrew Brown
Polity Press, 328 pages, £ 54.18 and £ 19.99
ISBN 9781509543717 and 9781509543724
Posted on July 2, 2021

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Rush’s Alex Lifeson might be done with many tours Wed, 06 Oct 2021 17:33:45 +0000

While Rush guitarist Alex Lifeson has been busy with several projects lately, he revealed in a conversation with Guitar Player that his touring days may be over.

When asked if there are plans to tour in the near future behind his various projects, the guitarist said (as transcribed by Guitar World): “I don’t really think about it. ‘trying to get this album [with Andy Curran] out first. “

He then added, “To be honest with you, I don’t think I have the guts to go on the road. I mean, if it was a handful of shows, it might be fun, but beyond that. .. After 40 years of sitting in hotel rooms, I’m not interested. I’ve had enough of this. I love my life at home. “

Lifeson has largely stayed off the road since Rush’s tour finale in 2015, and it appears he’s adapted to no longer endure the drudgery of a grand tour. “I thought I would miss being on stage a lot more, but I really don’t,” said the guitarist. “I did a few things here and there. Small things – usually it’s a charity event or something. It’s pretty fun getting up and playing with other people, but the whole production – the big giant machine – that doesn’t really appeal to me now. “

At the moment, Lifeson has the album with Andy Curran in the works, has been working on a new song with Tom Morello and Kirk Hammett and he has revealed that he would still like to work with Geddy Lee, while also revealing that any music that ‘They Created If Reunited will not be released as Rush after Neil Peart’s death in 2020.

66 best hard rock + metal guitarists of all time

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By Growth Rate, Type, Applications, Geographies and Forecast to 2026 Tue, 05 Oct 2021 16:47:37 +0000

The new Ballet Performance market research report consists of granular analysis of the business landscape and covers detailed overview related to market share, market size, and growth opportunities for the Ballet Performance market. Additionally, the report details various market segmentations.

In addition to this, the report emphasizes the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the growth prospects of the Ballet Show market.

Key Points Included In The Ballet Performance Market Report:

  • Rate of growth
  • Market trends
  • Economic indicators
  • Global Market Overview
  • Market concentration rate analysis
  • Detailed segmentation
  • Market factors
  • Regional bifurcation
  • Launch of new products
  • Main manufacturers
  • Market challenges
  • Revenue forecast
  • Mergers, acquisitions and expansion
  • The best marketing strategies
  • Sales channel information

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Regional Analysis Of Ballet Show Market:

Segmentation of the ballet performances market: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa, South East Asia

Regional field overview of the ballet performance market:

  • Key details with analysis by country.
  • Market share represented by each region.
  • Consumption rate for each region.
  • Expected value during the analysis period.

Product Types and Scope of the Ballet Performance Market:

Product segment:

Product Types: Classical Ballet Performance, Neoclassical Ballet Performance and Contemporary Ballet Performance

Key factors included in the report:

  • Consumer sales.
  • Market share represented by each product segment.
  • Selling price of the product.
  • Expected revenue amassed by each product segment.

Application landscape:

Application segmentation: Under 18, 18-34, 35-50 and over 50

Details shown in the report:

  • Consumption sales of all applications listed.
  • Consumption value and market share of each application fragment.
  • The selling price of the product for each listed application.

Other details specified in the report:

  • The report assesses the factors likely to hinder the expansion of the market during the analysis period.
  • The report also incorporates new entrants into the ballet performance market.
  • Major distributors and customers are also presented in the report.

Competitive spectrum of the ballet performance market:

Competitive landscape of the ballet performance market: Bolshoi Ballet Paris Opera Ballet de New York City Ballet American Ballet Theater (ABT) Mariinsky Theater American Repertory Ballet Vienna State Ballet The Royal Ballet Tokyo Ballet The National Ballet of China The Australian Ballet Hong Kong ballet

Main features cited by the report:

  • Detailed profiling of each company listed in the report.
  • Valuable information such as sales, market share, total revenue raised, manufacturing base distribution, and product selling price.
  • Recent developments in the company.
  • Detailed information about the company is contained in the report.
  • The main area of ​​sales recorded by each company is incorporated into the report.

The scope of the report:

The report offers a comprehensive company profile of key players competing in the global Dance Performance Market with an emphasis on share, gross margin, net profit, sales, product portfolio, news. applications, recent developments and several other factors. It also sheds light on the vendor landscape to help players realize future competitive changes in global ballet.

This Ballet Performance market research / analysis report contains answers to your following questions:

  • Who are the main global players in this ballet performance market? What is their company profile, product information, contact details?
  • What was the global market status of the market? What was the capacity, production value, cost and profit of the market?
  • What are the projections of the global industry taking into account the capacity, output and production value? What will the cost and profit estimate be? What will be the market share, supply and consumption? What about imports and exports?
  • What is the market chain analysis by upstream commodity and downstream industry?
  • What are the market dynamics of the market? What are the challenges and opportunities?
  • What should be the entry strategies, the countermeasures to the economic impact, the marketing channels for the industry?

Reasons to buy this report:

  • This report provides an accurate analysis of changing competitive dynamics
  • It provides a forward-looking perspective on different factors that are driving or hindering the growth of the market.
  • It provides a map of technology growth over time to understand the growth rate of the market.
  • It provides a five to seven year forecast evaluated based on how the market is expected to grow.
  • It helps to understand the key product segments and their future prospects.

To conclude, Ballet Performance Industry report mentions the key geographies, market landscapes alongside the product price, revenue, volume, production, supply, demand, market growth rate, and forecast, etc. This report also provides SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis and ROI analysis.

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Eddie Van Halen pushed a crowd to give Tremonti this advice Tue, 05 Oct 2021 14:18:56 +0000

Eddie Van Halen inspired many. It is therefore not surprising that after his death last year, many musicians brought up memories of the rocker. The most recent is Mark Tremonti.

Tremonti, the guitarist behind Creed, Alter Bridge and his namesake solo vehicle, already received the gift of his life when Van Halen gave him one of his guitars. Years later Wolfgang Van Halen, the son of EVH who now runs Mammoth WVH, will play bass in Tremonti until 2016.

It all comes down to Tremonti having “really special memories” involving Eddie, as he shared with Guitar World on Tuesday (October 5).

“One of them is when we opened for Van Halen at Madison Square Garden and Wolfgang was there,” Tremonti continued. “He must have been six – it was just that little kid! Eddie gave me one of his guitars backstage. He tapped on it and said, ‘Yeah, that feels good, there you go!’ and, of course, it has become one of my most precious possessions. “

The story doesn’t end there, however. Eddie would later walk through a crowd to make sure Tremonti put the ax right, echoing the kind of gear advice he would also give Def Leppard guitarist Phil Collen.

“When the show was over,” Tremonti recalls, “we were backstage underground and there were 300 crew members, guests, reporters everywhere, invading the place. We saw Wolf, his mother. and Eddie come out. Eddie saw me come out of the corner of his eye and walked through hundreds of people to come and say, “Hey, I forgot to tell you, you gotta get out two [tremolo tension] springs to make it play properly. Sorry, I forgot to tell you earlier! ‘”(EVH notably used two springs on his guitar bridge, compared to three or four.)

But that’s not all. “Then [Eddie] kissed me on the cheek and walked through everyone who was crying out for it again, “the musician recalls.

“Did he do this for me ?!” Tremonti marveled now. “He had his child and his wife with him and knew he would be caught up by everyone, but he took his time because he didn’t care about his products and the transmission of knowledge.… I could. seeing her heart a handful of times and I was lucky. It was a very cool thing. “

As for Wolf, Tremonti had equally kind words for his former bandmate, saying, “When you take out Van Halen’s name, he’s just a really nice, down-to-earth kid and he’s great. talented. When you hear him sing live he’s amazing. Plus he’s great on drums, guitar and bass. “

Tremonti’s latest album, Walk in time, arrived last month. Mammoth WVH released a debut LP in June. Check out upcoming Tremonti tour dates and get tickets at

Top 66 Hard Rock + Metal Guitarists of All Time

Countdown of the greatest rock and metal guitarists.

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Ballet Performance Market Trends 2021, Share Analysis, Growth Factors, Industry Consumption and Global Forecast 2026 Mon, 04 Oct 2021 08:45:44 +0000

The last Ballet shows market The research report elaborates on important aspects such as industry scope, global demand, merchantability, profitability and potential of this industrial sphere over 2021-2026. In addition, it assesses each sub-market to provide a broader view of that area, helping stakeholders understand the opportunities available.

As the experts have indicated, the Ballet show The size of the industry is expected to generate remarkable returns throughout the duration of the study, registering a CAGR of XX% through 2026.

The research literature also reviews the implications of the pandemic and recommends strategic solutions to effectively manage market instability. In addition, the competitive landscape section of the report covers the latest data on acquisitions, partnerships, pending mergers, as well as the strategies deployed by major players to help industry players to make better decisions.

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Key Features of the Ballet Performance Market Report:

  • Impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the progress of the industry
  • Total sales, overall returns and market share accounts
  • Major industry trends
  • Great enriching perspectives
  • Market growth rate estimates
  • Advantages and disadvantages of using direct and indirect sales channels
  • A catalog of the main distributors, resellers and sellers

Competitive dashboard:

  • Bolshoi Ballet
  • Paris Opera Ballet
  • New York Ballet
  • American Ballet Theater (ABT)
  • Mariinsky Theater
  • American repertoire ballet
  • Vienna State Ballet
  • The Royal Ballet
  • Tokyo ballet
  • The National Ballet of China
  • The Australian Ballet and the Hong Kong Ballet

  • Commercial summary of listed companies
  • Product and service offerings from the main industry players
  • Details of sales, product price structure, gross margin, total revenue and market share of each company
  • SWOT Analysis of Leading Companies
  • Conclusive data on concentration ratio and commercialization rate
  • Assessment of strategic commitments of large companies

Ballet Performance Market Segments Covered in the Report:

Geographic fragmentation:

  • North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia, Italy and rest of Europe)
  • Asia Pacific (China, Japan, South Korea, India, Southeast Asia, Australia and the rest of Asia-Pacific)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, rest of South America)
  • Middle East and Africa (Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Rest of Middle East and Africa)
  • Market assessment at national and regional level
  • Accumulated sales, accumulated returns and industry shares obtained by each regional contributor
  • Revenue and growth rate estimates for each regional market during the analysis period

Product Types: Classical Ballet Performance, Neoclassical Ballet Performance and Contemporary Ballet Performance

  • Pricing models for each type of product
  • Market share analysis with respect to sales and returns garnered by each market segment

Application spectrum: under 18, 18-34, 35-50 and over 50

  • Product price according to the scope of the application
  • Revenue and sales accumulated by each application category during the forecast period

Key Questions Answered in the Ballet Performance Market Report:

What will be the growth rate of the Ballet Performance market in 2026?

What are the key factors driving the global performance of ballet?

What are the sales, revenue, and price analysis of major manufacturers of Ballet Performance?

Who are the distributors, traders and resellers of Ballet Performance Market?

Who are the main suppliers of the Ballet Performance space?

What are the Ballet Performance market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Ballet Performance Market?

What are the market opportunities, market risk, and market overview of the Ballet Show market?

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Cleveland Museum of Art celebrates Odilon Redon’s spooky art, just in time for Halloween Sun, 03 Oct 2021 09:30:45 +0000

CLEVELAND, Ohio – Just in time for Halloween, the Cleveland Museum of Art showcases the extraordinarily bizarre art of Odilon Redon, one of France’s scariest artists of the late 19th century.

A new exhibition examines 53 examples of the artist’s work, which explores dark and imaginary fantasies that contrast dramatically with the colorful, washed-out impressionist landscapes most often associated with French art of the time.

Redon, (1840 – 1916) is an utterly fascinating figure who seemed to stand out from his contemporaries while acting as a recognized leader of the Symbolist movement in France and Belgium, and serving as an essential precursor of 20th century surrealism.

Strongly inspired by the visionary writings of authors such as Gustave Flaubert, Stéphane Mallarmé and Edgar Allan Poe, Redon specialized in dreamlike and hallucinatory images populated by monsters, wizards, winged horses, Wagnerian heroines, Christian angels, Buddhist deities and giant eyeballs that float in the sky like hot air balloons.

Redon specialized for much of his career in “blacks,” a long series of charcoal drawings and lithographs that harnessed the power of black to evoke the mysterious and disturbing worlds that were his strong point.

Examples on display in the exhibit include lithographic prints depicting a haunted house populated by ghostly figures, a dog pierced by something only he can see, and a hand that emerges from the surrounding darkness to place a threatening-looking letter on top of it. a lighted table. in the foreground. The image appears to anticipate Thing, the disembodied hand of The Addams Family, the fictional household created by cartoonist Charles Addams in the 1930s, which went on to inspire popular TV show and movies.

One can also see in Redon’s exhibition a remarkable “black” drawing from the 1870s representing Quasimodo, the main character of Victor Hugo’s novel, “The Hunchback of Notre-Dame”, the author of which the artist deeply admired.

Acquired by the museum in 2020, the design depicts Quasimodo on what appears to be a dimly lit balcony, accompanied by a mysterious hooded figure.

Quasimodo’s massive head, which feels as heavy as if carved in stone like that of a gargoyle, twists to one side as he looks up and part his lips as if to speak. The image is melancholy, bizarre, even a little frightening.

The exhibit, “Collecting Dreams: Odilon Redon”, was not specially designed to coincide with the spookiest holiday on the calendar.

Curated by Britany Salsbury, Associate Curator of Prints and Drawings, the exhibition aims to shed light on a little-known chapter in the history of the museum’s permanent collection.

The museum gained a reputation from the late 1950s to the mid 1980s for taking a distant and unenthusiastic stance towards modern and contemporary art. This is not the case now, as the museum invests heavily in both areas and devotes a great deal of conservation energy and gallery space to them.

But as the Salsbury exhibit demonstrates, the museum, despite its reputation for conservative taste, was very enthusiastic about certain aspects of modern and contemporary art during its early decades. His admiration for Redon is one example.

From 1925 to 1927, the museum acquired no less than 39 of the 65 copies of Redon’s work currently in its collection. The first purchases included three large series of lithographs and a pair of light pastels considered among the artist’s finest works.

A pastel, from 1910, is a portrait of Violette Haymann, the niece of a major French art collector, posing in profile amidst colorful flowers that seem to reflect her inner state of mind. The other is an image of the lyre and the head of the Greek god of music, Orpheus, who, according to myth, continues to produce music after his death.

By acquiring such works in the 1920s, the museum acquired “an international reputation as the most important repository of Redon’s works outside of France,” according to a wall label from the exhibition.

Today he has a lot of company. The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art all have Redon holdings comparable to those in Cleveland. And all of them are eclipsed by the Art Institute of Chicago, whose website lists more than 400 works by the artist.

Nevertheless, the new exhibition sheds light on a little-known facet of the museum’s history. Presented in the institution’s Focus Gallery, the exhibition is also an excellent introduction to Redon and his enigmatic and introspective art.

Coming from a wealthy family in Bordeaux, Redon suffered from an illness in his childhood, possibly epilepsy, and was sent by his parents to live with an uncle in a family vineyard. Growing up alone most of the time, he considered himself a “sad and weak child” who “sought the shade,” according to quotes cited on

Redon only started school when he was 11, when he returned to his biological family. After showing an aptitude for art, he was urged by his father to study architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but he failed the entrance exam.

He then studied in Paris for a time with Antoine-Léon Gérôme, the conservative neoclassical artist who allegedly “tortured” Redon by insisting that he should learn to draw from live models in a studio instead. than to follow his desire to generate images from his own. imagination.

Returning to Bordeaux in 1865, Redon met the famous artist Rodolfe Bresdin, a master of visionary landscapes who encouraged Redon’s unusual artistic trajectory. After serving in the French army during its humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Redon returned to Paris where he found his place as a mature artist and befriended contemporaries including Henri Fantin-Latour and Paul Gauguin.

Above all, Redon caught the attention of novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans, who made the artist famous by mentioning his work in his 1884 novel, “Against the grain”, an essential expression of fin-de-siècle cultural decadence.

The book tells the story of a rich recluse, Jean Des Esseintes, who retires to his mansion outside Paris to cure himself of a nervous disorder by devoting himself to sensual pleasures.

Des Esseintes had an aquarium installed in place of a dining room window, had breakfast at 5 pm and experimented with a “mouth organ”, from which he sipped harmonic combinations of liquors. As a jewel-encrusted turtle crawls on its rugs, Des Esseintes gets lost in the works of Redon, the Symbolist Gustave Moreau and Bresdin.

Huysmans’ novel echoes aspects of Redon’s introverted sensibility, which comes through powerfully in the museum’s exhibition.

In addition to shedding light on the history of the museum’s collection, the exhibition follows the institution’s summer exhibition on the Nabis, a group of late 19th-century French painters whose works Redon admired and whose works the leaders, including Pierre Bonnard and Maurice Denis, were the subject of lithographic portraits of Redon.

Redon’s exhibit also resonates well with another exhibit held earlier this year, “Stories from Storage,” in which the museum drew on its permanent collection to reinterpret rarely-exhibited treasures.

More than anything, the Salsbury exhibition calls for more such exhibitions, and for a major exhibition and book that deeply explores the history of the museum’s collection growth.

The museum published a useful institutional history in 1991 when celebrating its 75th anniversary, but missed the opportunity for something more extensive on its 100th anniversary in 2016.

As Redon’s exhibit shows, there is much more for the museum – and the public – to learn about how the Cleveland Museum of Art became one of America’s most important art museums.


What’s new: “Collecting dreams: Odilon Redon. “

Place: Cleveland Art Museum.

Address: 11150 East Blvd., Cleveland.

When: Until Sunday January 23, 2022.

Admission: To free. Call 216-421-7350 or visit

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Economical vaccines Sun, 03 Oct 2021 04:45:00 +0000

Regardless of what is discussed at the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which are due to take place in Washington, DC in October, macroeconomic stability and better functioning markets are the two economic doses of vaccines that we have. need.

October 03, 2021, 10:45 a.m.

Last modification: 03 October 2021, 12:24

Jyoti Rahman. Illustration: SCT


Jyoti Rahman. Illustration: SCT

Each October, finance ministers and central bank governors from around the world come together for the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Meetings and seminars, round tables, workshops, conferences, etc. who accompany them, are also followed by senior officials responsible for economic development, participants from civil society, academics and public intellectuals, business representatives and, of course, demonstrators. Washington, DC is the usual venue, but once every three years, meetings are held elsewhere. Marrakech should welcome them in 2022.

With the Delta variant still prevalent around the world, this year’s meetings will be a hybrid of the physical and the virtual. The so-called “business scandal”, with a scorching call from Economist magazine for the resignation of IMF director Kristalina Georgieva, will also cast a veil on the debates.

In 2003, the World Bank began publishing an index that assessed and ranked countries on the basis of their regulatory and legal environment, ease of starting a business, financing, infrastructure, and other measures of the business climate. . Doing Business indicators have been taken seriously by multinationals, development practitioners and governments around the world. For example, in 2017, the Chinese premier expressed concern about his country’s delay.

Afterwards, China’s scores improved. And now an independent report claims the report was tampered with by Georgieva, then CEO of the bank, under “undue pressure” from China. At the time of writing, the future of the head of the IMF is at stake, while the World Bank had already canceled the annual Doing Business report.

The Doing Business indicators reflected one side of the so-called Washington Consensus, the other side being macroeconomic stability through prudent monetary and fiscal policies. The idea was that countries with healthy public finances, well-run banks, liberal trade and foreign investment regimes, and the rule of law would see more investment, innovation, economic growth, jobs and income over time.

These policy prescriptions reflect the dominant neoclassical economy that dominates international financial institutions, as well as finance ministries and central banks in large economies.

According to Kevin and Robin Grier of Texas Tech University, the Consensus worked in the direction expected by its supporters. Examining 141 countries between 1970 and 2015, the authors identified 49 cases of policy reforms as mandated by the Consensus.

They found that countries adopting Washington Consensus policies, on average and after controlling for other factors, grew 2.1 to 2.9 percentage points faster in the five years following the reform (and 1 to 1.9 percentage points faster over ten years) than countries that did not.

The authors used the Fraser Institute’s World Economic Freedom Index, a Canadian think tank, to identify countries that have adopted the Consensus prescriptions. In this index, countries receive scores between 1 and 10. The index consists of five components: size of government and taxation, private property and the rule of law, sound currency, trade regulations and tariffs. , regulation of business, labor and capital markets. The higher the score, the more a country complies with the Consensus.

From there, a simplistic claim would be that liberalized economies with deregulated markets and privatized industries would perform better. A more nuanced interpretation is that a country with a government capable of financing its budgets and upholding the rule of law and a well-regulated (including banking) and globally competitive private sector is more likely to withstand adverse shocks.

Seen in this light, Grier’s finding is that countries that have not adopted the Washington Consensus are likely to grow more slowly than those that have. Seen in this light, the Consensus is like a vaccine that makes a person more resistant to disease, instead of increasing their fitness or stamina.

The authors identify the reform cases as countries with a one-point jump in five years, with the highest score maintained for the following decade. Bangladesh narrowly falls short of making the cut – the country’s score increased by 0.99 in the five years leading up to 2000. In the previous two decades, the score had steadily increased. This trend stopped after 2000, and Bangladesh’s score has actually declined since 2009 (Figure 1).

Bangladesh’s performance in the World Economic Freedom Index over the years.

Bangladesh's performance in the World Economic Freedom Index over the years.

Bangladesh’s performance in the World Economic Freedom Index over the years.

In other words, if the authors’ calculations are taken at face value, Bangladesh would have grown much faster if the political trends from before the 2000s had continued over the past two decades.

One can quibble about this or about the weights and calculations underlying Bangladesh’s score in the index for any given year. But taking a step back, do we ask if the country’s banks, financial markets and various specific sectors were better regulated in the 2010s or 1990s? In what decade have we seen more scandals? In which decade have the courts been most trusted?

An honest soul-searching on any of these issues would lead to the very disturbing conclusion that Bangladesh did not do as well as one might expect at the turn of the century. Regardless of what is discussed in Washington, DC in October, macroeconomic stability and better functioning markets are the two economic doses of vaccines we need.

Sadly, the graph above doesn’t inspire much confidence in Bangladesh’s chances of getting the jabs.

Jyoti rahman is an applied macroeconomist. His analyzes are available at

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Tulsa Time Warp: Court Order | City office Fri, 01 Oct 2021 07:00:00 +0000

In 1915, after seven years of bureaucratic positioning on behalf of Tulsa, construction finally began on a long-awaited federal building at the corner of West Second Street and South Boulder Avenue.

The building was funded by the US government and designed by the architect James A. Wetmore Department of the Treasury in Washington, DC When completed in 1917, Tulsa’s first federal building originally housed the United States Post Office and Courthouse.

The building was Tulsa’s first permanent postal establishment since the region’s first post office was established in 1879. Due to the city’s rapid growth, Tulsa’s central post office has taken up residence in many locations across the country. over the years, but quickly overtook each of its facilities. and was forced to move again.

The district court and many other federal officials had offices in the building. In 1924, the new Northern District Court of Oklahoma was established and Tulsa was designated as its seat.

Like Tulsa, the federal building would continue to develop. In 1926, the Tulsa Chamber of Commerce promised an extension of the structure, and in 1928, additional money for construction was allocated. In 1932, the building tripled in size. It housed all federal agencies in Tulsa for many years, and in the mid-1990s was converted into a courthouse.

The building still houses the Northern District Court. While many architectural details have been removed or covered up by the remodeling, examples of the Federalist / Neoclassical style – also visible in its iconic columns – remain inside the building.

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