Intersindical RTVV http://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/ Tue, 22 Nov 2022 07:53:23 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/intersindicalrtvv-icon-70x70.png Intersindical RTVV http://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/ 32 32 China Antitrust Monthly Update: November 2022 https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/china-antitrust-monthly-update-november-2022/ Tue, 22 Nov 2022 07:53:23 +0000 https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/china-antitrust-monthly-update-november-2022/

Legislation

The Council of State announces Independent Business Development Promotion Regulations and emphasizes that platform operators should not impose unreasonable conditions

On October 25, 2022, in order to encourage, support and guide the healthy development of the individual economy, to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of individual entrepreneurs, to stabilize and develop urban and rural employment and to make fully play the important role of individual entrepreneurs in the national economy and social development, the State Council announced the completion Regulation on the promotion of the development of individual entrepreneurswhich will come into force on November 1, 2022.

SAMR publishes Guidance Notice on Regulation of Administrative Penalty Discretion for Market Regulation

On October 8, in accordance with the Administrative Penalty Law of the People’s Republic of China and other relevant laws, regulations, rules and provisions of the state and in the light of the actual labor practices of market regulation for the purpose of regulating the administrative penalty for market regulation, to safeguard the lawful exercise of power discretion on administrative punishment by market regulatory authorities and to protect the rights and legitimate interests of natural persons, legal persons and other organizations, the State Administration for Market Regulation (“SAMR”) publishes Guidance Notice on the Regulation of Administrative Penalty Discretion for Market Regulation.

Authorities

SAMR to recruit 11 more anti-monopoly officers

On October 25, 2022, the National Civil Service Administration issued an announcement on “the employment of civil servants in the 2023 exam”. In the announcement, SAMR’s Antitrust Enforcement Division I, Antitrust Enforcement Division II, and Competition Policy and Coordination Division of SAMR plan to hire 11 officials.

Chongqing AMR issues guideline for antimonopoly review of corporate mergers

On October 19, the Chongqing Administration for Market Regulation (AMR) announced the guideline for anti-monopoly review of business mergers in Chongqing. The guide is divided into three parts: a brief guide, the basic requirements and the trading application process, which clarifies the acceptance scope of the trading application, application time, preparation materials and the content of the negotiation, etc.

SAMR appoints antitrust director

On October 14, SAMR appointed Xinjian Xu as director of SAMR’s Antimonopoly and Regulatory Division.

Shandong AMR Issuing Tender for Anti-monopoly Evidence Collection Equipment Procurement Project

On October 12, Shandong AMR issued an announcement on the procurement project award for anti-monopoly evidence collection equipment, which said the winning company was Jinan Huitian Yunhai Information Technology Co., Ltd, and that the winning bid was RMB 195,850.

The Center for Competition Policy and Big Data provides data and evidence collection services for SAMR for antimonopoly review on corporate concentration

On October 10, SAMR released the results of the winning bid for the Anti-Monopoly Data and Evidence Collection Project and Other Services, with SAMR’s Center for Competition Policy and Big Data as the winning bidder, with a winning bid of RMB 2.58 million.

Director of SAMR (Luo Wen): significant achievements in building a unified national market and dismantling administrative monopolies and market monopolies

On October 10, Luo Wen, director of SAMR, said in his article Historical Achievements and Changes in Chinese Market Regulation that the construction of a Unified National Market has obtained significant results and that the dismantling of administrative monopolies and market monopolies has been effective. The article states that since 2018, the state has been committed to promoting the establishment of a national fair competition review system, vigorously cleaning up and abolishing various regulations and practices that hinder the unified national market. and fair competition, to continuously strengthen law enforcement against abuse. administrative power to exclude and restrict competition, vigorously safeguard the order of fair competition in the market, protect the lawful rights and interests of various enterprises in the market, safeguard the rights and interests of consumers and social public interests, and to promote the continuous optimization of the ecology of the Chinese mega market.

MOF and CAFS Officers Respond to Journalist’s Questions Regarding GPL’s Exposure Draft

On October 9, agents from the Ministry of Finance (“MOF”) and the Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences (“CAFS”) answer the questions of the journalists regarding the exposure draft of the People’s Procurement Laws Republic of China (“LPG”), the main aspects, including the purpose of the amendment of the GPL; the main changes made to the GPL as a result of this amendment; the provisions included in the exposure draft to prevent and reduce corruption in the public procurement process.

Anti-Monopoly and Fair Competition Commission established in Shanghai

On September 30, the Shanghai Anti-Monopoly and Fair Competition Commission was officially established. The office of the Anti-Monopoly and Fair Competition Commission is located in Shanghai AMR, and the office manager is Wenhao Peng.

Public app

Hubei AMR investigates abuse of administrative monopoly of Xiangyang Administrative Approval Bureau

On October 17, 2022, Hubei AMR announced that, according to the results of the lawfully conducted investigation into the alleged abuse of administrative power to exclude and restrict competition by the Xiangyang Administrative Approval Bureau since June 2022, the Xiangyang Administrative Approval Bureau violated Article 34 of the People’s Republic of China Anti-Monopoly Law (“AML”). The Xiangyang Administrative Approval Bureau realized that the above behavior violated the provisions of the AML and actively rectified during the investigation and eliminated the adverse effects. Hubei AMR’s investigation procedure therefore ended accordingly.

Merger control

Director of NDRC: focus on the launch of “green light” investment cases for the platform economy

On July 28, 2022, during the thirty-seventh session of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (“NPC Standing Committee), Lifeng He, director of the National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) stressed that it is necessary to promote the standardized, sound and sustainable development of the platform economy, complete the special rectification of the platform economy, implement standardized supervision of the platform economy platform and focus on launching a number of “green light” investment cases.

CIMC Terminates Acquisition of APMM Due to Merger Control, Pays Reverse Break Fee of Up to RMB 600 Million

On October 20, China International Marine Containers (Group) Co., Ltd. (“CIMC”) announced that after discussions with APMøller–Mærsk A/S(“APMM”), CIMC and APMM signed the Settlement Agreementand CIMC must pay APMM a settlement fee of 85 million USD (approximately 600 million RMB).

Court litigation

SPC: Strengthen anti-monopoly justice and legally adjudicate “Choose one from two” and BDDP cases on e-commerce platform

On October 19, Rong He, deputy secretary of the Supreme People’s Court Party Group (“SPC), emphasized during the 20th National People’s Congress (“NPC”) that the laws, regulations and opinions issued must be used to build a Unified National Market. It is necessary to strengthen anti-monopoly justice and against unfair competition to maintain a fair market order. It is necessary to legally deal with cases such as “choose one out of two” and “big data discriminatory pricing” (BDDP) of e-commerce platform to strengthen the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of workers and consumers in the new forms of employment, and promote the healthy development of the platform economy of the digital economy.

SPP: actively and regularly conduct public interest litigation in the area of ​​anti-monopoly and focus on the Internet and other areas of livelihood protection

On October 15, 2022, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (“PSP”) published data on the main cases handled by national prosecutors in the first three quarters of the year and indicated the direction of development: to play an active role in the protection of intellectual property rights and litigation of public interest against market players. Respond to the office of Public Interest Litigation Prosecutor to actively and regularly conduct public interest litigation in the area of ​​anti-monopoly, with emphasis on the Internet and other areas of consumer protection livelihoods to continuously improve market vitality and create fair and orderly competition in the market environment.

Qinghai Local People’s Court Transfers Damage Compensation Case for Abuse of Dominant Market Positions to Intermediate People’s Court

On October 3, the People’s Court of Minhe Hui and Tu Autonomous County of Qinghai Province issued a civil decision on Haidong Huaze Gas Appliances Trading Co., Ltd Minhe Branch v. Qinghai Province Minhe Chuanzhong Oil & Gas Co., Ltd, which, in accordance with the provisions of Article 1 and Article 3, paragraph 1 of the Provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on several issues relating to the application of law in the trial of civil disputes arising from monopoliesruled that the case should be under the jurisdiction of the intermediate people’s court of the city where the provincial people’s government is located, and therefore transferred the case to the jurisdiction of the Xining intermediate people’s court.

Drinking water suppliers at Changsha South Railway Station sued for price consistency monopoly, Supreme Court dismisses for insufficient evidence of meaningful binding

On September 30, the appellant, Binquan Li, appealed the civil judgment of the Changsha Intermediate People’s Court of Hunan in a monopoly dispute with the respondent, Hunan Xiangpintang Industry and Trade Co., Ltd. do not prove that Xiangpintang and the other five defendants engaged in the conduct prohibited by the AML, the SPC found that the evidence available in the case did not prove that Xiangpintang and the other five defendants entered into a monopoly agreement to fix the price of the goods and decided to reject all requests from Binquan Li.

Academia

The 3rd CRESSE-JUFE International Symposium on Competition Policy was successfully held online

On October 18, 2022, the 3rd CRESSE-JUFE International Seminar on Competition Policy, co-organized by Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics (“JUFE”) and the European Conference and Summer School on Competition and Regulation (CRESSE), took place in Zoom online and lasted three days.

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Use Cases for US Dollar-Settled Foreign Currency Options® https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/use-cases-for-us-dollar-settled-foreign-currency-options/ Mon, 21 Nov 2022 16:30:24 +0000 https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/use-cases-for-us-dollar-settled-foreign-currency-options/

DDerivatives markets developed largely as tools to offset pre-existing price risk. In 1982, the Nasdaq PHLX (PHLX®) introduced currency options. Over the past four decades, trillions of notional exposures have been traded in US dollars (USD) against products linked to major foreign currencies.

The use case scenarios are varied, as are the end users. Multinational corporations based in the United States can use the products to manage foreign exchange risks related to foreign income. Investment banks, fund managers and other institutional users may seek to hedge the risk associated with foreign stocks or bonds. Both individual and institutional market participants could use these options to express an outlook or hedge risk on a specific foreign currency.

An example will help illustrate the potential benefit associated with foreign currency options settled in US dollars.

James and Mary are a retired couple living in a coastal town in the United States. They plan to buy a boat from a Mediterranean shipping company (MMC). The bill for the new vessel is €500,000. The funds are due in nine months.

The couple have set aside $492,500 based on the current USD to Euro exchange rate (0.985). Funds will remain in an interest-bearing account until the final invoice is due in 270 days. Interest on the funds will bring the account value to $510,000 in nine months.

Final payment must be made in euros, so their risk over the next nine months is tied to the strength of the euro against the US dollar.

Source: Live Flight Pro

Over the past 10 years, the USD/EUR cross has oscillated between (0.975 and 1.38). The currency spot rate changes during the day, as does the value of stocks or commodities. If, for example, the cross rate returned to 1.10 when the bill was due, the couple would need $550,000 to pay for the boat.

Today it takes $0.985 to buy €1, but in the first quarter of 2014 it took $1.38 to buy €1. Foreign exchange markets have become more volatile in recent years. Central banks around the world have turned to less accommodative monetary policies. Interest rates have risen in the United States and elsewhere, which correlates with currency volatility.

What if the USD continues to strengthen against the EUR and the pair falls to 0.85? In this situation, they would benefit because it would only take ($500,000 * 0.85) = $425,000 to complete the trade.

To offset their currency risk, James and Mary decide to use Nasdaq currency options. There are multiple expirations and strikes/sets of options, so they can customize their risk compensation. The couple wants to minimize their premium expense on the foreign exchange transaction.

Interest earned on the funds will total approximately $17,500 when the bill is due. They are ready to use this money to establish a hedge.

As a result, they decide to sell 100 XDE 102.50 nine-month put options at 2.75 each. They are also selling 100 nine-month XDE 0.95 Strike Calls at 2.00 each. The total amount of premiums is $7,500. Options expire at noon EST on the third Friday of the expiration month.

The long call option and the short put option on XDE both benefit from the strength of the Euro against the USD. As such, the option position is used as a hedge against an unfavorable currency movement for James and Mary.

What-if scenarios:

USD/EUR cash settlement at 0.985 (unchanged from today).

Implications (Hedge is a cost):

  • The coverage would lose the $7,500 premium paid.
  • James and Mary will need ($500,000 * 0.985) US$492,500 to complete the transaction.
  • They have $510,000 in the account due to earned interest.
  • Net of hedging, they are left with ($510,000 – $492,500 – $7,500) $10,000 in savings after the purchase.

USD/EUR spot settlement at 0.940 (the euro is weaker against the USD).

Implications (a stronger dollar is a benefit; a hedge is a cost):

  • The 95.00 short put options are worth $100 each ($10,000 total). Calls expire OTM (no value). The hedge is down $10,000 plus the premium paid to enter the position ($7,500). They lose $17,500 on the cover.
  • James and Mary will need ($500,000 * 0.940) $470,000 to complete the transaction.
  • They have $510,000 in the account due to earned interest.
  • Net of the hedge, they are left with ($510,000 – $470,000 – $17,500) $22,500 in savings after purchase.

Spot settlement USD/EUR @ 1.05 (Euro is stronger against USD).

Implications (lower dollar is a cost; coverage is a benefit):

  • The long 102.50 strike calls are worth $250 each ($25,000 total). Short puts expire OTM (worthless). The hedge returns ($25,000 – 7,500) $17,500.
  • James and Mary will need ($500,000 * 1.05) $525,000 to complete the transaction.
  • They have $510,000 in the account due to earned interest.
  • Net of the hedge, they are left with ($510,000 + $17,500 – $525,000) $2,500 in savings after the purchase.

USD/EUR spot settlement at 1.15 (the euro is significantly stronger against the USD).

Implications (lower dollar is a big cost; coverage is a big benefit):

  • The long 102.50 strike calls are worth $1,250 each ($125,000 total). Short puts expire OTM (worthless). The hedge yields ($125,000 – $7,500) $117,500.
  • James and Mary will need ($500,000 * 1.15) $575,000 to complete the transaction.
  • They have $510,000 in the account due to earned interest.
  • Net of the hedge, they are left with ($510,000 + $117,500 – $575,000) $52,500 in savings after the purchase.

USD/EUR cash settlement at 0.85 (the dollar is significantly stronger than the euro).

Implications (a stronger dollar is a big benefit, hedging is a big cost):

  • The 0.95 short put options are worth $1,000 each (down from $100,000). Short calls expire OTM (worthless). The coverage is equivalent to a loss of ($100,000 + $7,500) ($107,500).
  • James and Mary will need ($500,000 * 0.85) $425,000 to complete the transaction.
  • They have $510,000 in the account due to earned interest.
  • Net of the hurdle, they need ($510,000-$425,000-$107,500) another $22,500 to cover the cost of the boat and the hurdle.

The couple understand their alternatives. They know the historical range of the USD against the Euro. They consider the probability of a much weaker Euro (significantly stronger USD) to be low. They are mostly concerned about the potential for dollar weakness which, in the absence of a hedge, would make their trade more expensive.

Currency options can be used in different ways. We have highlighted a use case for a future transaction in a foreign currency. For more information visit this page.

The views and opinions expressed herein are the views and opinions of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of Nasdaq, Inc.

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The contagion of the genesis of crypto lenders continues Blockblog https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/the-contagion-of-the-genesis-of-crypto-lenders-continues-blockblog/ Sat, 19 Nov 2022 08:00:00 +0000 https://www.intersindicalrtvv.com/the-contagion-of-the-genesis-of-crypto-lenders-continues-blockblog/

The following is an excerpt from a recent edition of Bitcoin Magazine Pro, Bitcoin magazine premium markets newsletter. To be among the first to receive this information and other on-chain bitcoin market analysis straight to your inbox, Subscribe now.

Genesis seeks cash injection

If you are unfamiliar with Genesis Trading, maybe you should. They represent the basic infrastructure of the institutional investor base in the Bitcoin and cryptography markets in the broad sense. For lending, trading, hedging, exchange yields and more, Genesis Trading was the brokerage to facilitate all of this activity in the space. Remember those juicy returns from BlockFi and Gemini Earn products in space? Genesis is the intermediary between these platforms and hedge funds to generate this return.